The potential of temporary migration programmes in future international migration policy
By Martin RUHS
This article explores the potential of temporary migration programmes (TMPs) for managing international labour migration in a way that is both practical and sensitive. Drawing upon the experiences of past and current TMPs, Ruhs discusses how TMPs can: help high-income countries meet their market needs; provide people from low-income countries with better access to labour markets in higher-income countries; maximize migration’s developmental impact on countries of origin; and address high-income countries’ concerns about the permanent settlement of migrants and the diversity of their societies. In conclusion, he identifies the core considerations and policies needed to formulate and effectively implement TMPs.
Keywords: labour migration, migrant worker, migration policy, international migration, temporary worker
The globalization of the labour market for health-care professionals
By Paul F. CLARK, James B. STEWART and Darlene A. CLARK
The worldwide shortage of health-care workers has led to a brain drain that is negatively affecting the health-care systems of less affluent countries. The authors study the factors encouraging nurses and doctors to migrate, measure the costs and benefits of such migration and analyse methods of foreign recruitment. They then look at the theories that help explain this phenomenon: human capital theory, theories of neo-colonialism and of globalization. They conclude with a policy discussion of possible strategies, which include addressing the “push” factors motivating migration, focusing training on local health-care needs, signing bilateral agreements that limit migration, etc.
Keywords: international migration, labour shortage, globalization, medical personnel
Competing for talent: China’s strategies to reverse the brain drain
By David ZWEIG
n order to sustain its economic growth, China has been pursuing a number of policies aimed at recovering its expatriate brain power by encouraging scholars living abroad to return. While local government authorities compete to recruit returnees, the central Government has introduced various policies to facilitate repatriation and resettlement, including preferential treatment for housing and research, financial benefits (fellowships), better dissemination of information, etc. The author concludes that these efforts have not been in vain, but notes that few of those who have returned have given up particularly successful careers abroad to do so.
Keywords: return migration, highly qualifid worker, government policy, China, scientist
Labour market effects of immigration into Italy: An empirical analysis
By Alessandra VENTURINI and Claudia VILLOSIO
The authors seek to determine how immigration affects the employment and unemployment of nationals in Italy. To this end, they apply a probit model to measure the extent to which the presence of migrant workers affects the probability that national workers will find jobs or lose the ones they have. Particular methodological problems are resolved by applying the model to homogeneous areas defined either by regions or by regions and sectors. The results show that, except during specific periods, migrant labour has a complementary rather than a competitive effect on the labour market.
Keywords: immigrant, Italy, unemployment, job searching
The internationalization of employment: A challenge to fair globalization?
The author reports on a joint ILO/France symposium, which was concerned with the internationalization of employment. The participants sought to determine whether and how far fears fuelled by globalization are justified. Globalization today is characterized by the internationalization of employment along value chains, with the concomitant relocation of production and jobs, restructurings, and winners and losers. According to the participants, what was required was a permanent “adjustment management system” to minimize the negative effects for workers. The author sets out several conditions that must be met to create such a system.
Keywords: globalization, employment, employment policy, ILO standards, social dialogue
The ILO’s new Convention on maritime labour: An innovative instrument
In February 2006, the Maritime Session of the International Labour Conference adopted a consolidated maritime labour Convention. This instrument represents a major breakthrough in several respects. The author briefly runs through the origins of the Maritime Sessions of the ILC and then lays out the structure and content of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006. Its innovative features include the consolidation of the provisions of more than 60 earlier instruments, a new system of enforcement that provides an incentive for ratification, and simplified procedures for revision.
Keywords: ILO convention, maritime questions, conditions of employment, working conditions, seafarer
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