Construction is one of the most dangerous occupations. One in six fatal accidents at work occurs on a construction site, and each year at least 60,000 fatal accidents occur on construction sites around the world. Yet the causes of accidents are well known and almost all accidents are preventable, and, like other business issues, occupational safety and health (OSH) can be managed within the enterprise. The ILO adopted the Safety and Health in Construction Convention (No. 167) and its associated Recommendation (No. 175) in 1988. As a complement to these standards, the ILO Code of Practice on Safety and Health in Construction was approved in 1992. In line with the most recent trends in OSH management, the ILO developed the Guidelines on Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems in 2001 (ILO OSH 2001). They apply to all economic sectors and are particularly useful in the construction industry, as they highlight issues relating to subcontracting.