Publications on informal economy

  1. ILO Working paper 80

    Realizing the opportunities of the platform economy through freedom of association and collective bargaining

    30 September 2022

    This study provides empirical evidence from different regions of the world to identify avenues for platform economy workers to access freedom of association and collective bargaining.

  2. Publication

    Helping young entrepreneurs to formalize their businesses in Nigeria

    26 September 2022

    Insights from a business formalization coach

  3. Publication

    Future of Work, Emerging Sectors and the Potential for Transition to Formality

    12 September 2022

  4. Labour Overview Series 2022

    Weak growth and the global crisis are holding back the recovery of the employment in Latin America and the Caribbean

    01 September 2022

    In a context of partial recovery of labour indicators, the Russian aggression against Ukraine has made the outlook for labour markets in the region more complex. Slowdown in economic growth makes full employment recovery more difficult and increases the risk of informalisation, while accelerating inflation negatively impacts real labour and household incomes. This adds to the enduring distributional effects of the pandemic in a region characterised by very high levels of inequality.

  5. Publication

    The evaluation of policies promoting the transition to formality

    31 August 2022

  6. ILO Working paper 75

    Using Online Vacancy and Job Applicants’ Data to Study Skills Dynamics

    18 August 2022

    This paper finds that big data on vacancies and applications to an online job board can be a promising data source for studying skills dynamics, especially in countries where alternative sources are scarce. To show this, we develop a skills taxonomy, assess the characteristics of such online data, and employ natural language processing and machine-learning techniques. The empirical implementation uses data from the Uruguayan job board BuscoJobs, but can be replicated with similar data from other countries.

  7. ILO Working paper 72

    Why should we integrate income and employment support? A conceptual and empirical investigation

    18 July 2022

    This paper conceptualizes, for the first time, the implementation of policy approaches that integrate active labour market policies within income support schemes, focusing on low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We develop a conceptual framework to understand how integrated policies can address labour market challenges, exploring the theoretical effects they exert on selected labour market and social dimensions. We compare this to the empirical literature, which does not always find that policies are effective. To reconcile this discrepancy, we investigate the design and implementation of integrated approaches across LMIC and identify factors which contribute to their effectiveness.

  8. ILO Working Paper 69

    Growth, economic structure and informality

    18 June 2022

    This paper explores the relationship between economic growth and informality and highlights the role of GDP growth and its composition in the level and evolution of informality, using country data from 1991 to 2019.

  9. Publication

    Vulnerabilities to child labour

    16 May 2022

    Identifying particularly vulnerable groups of children and their specific needs is essential for the elimination of child labour. This brief brings together the key findings from four studies that each address a key area of vulnerability to child labour: climate change, situations of crisis, indigenous peoples and informality. For each of the thematic areas, the brief presents evidence of the linkages with child labour and implications for policy.

  10. Publication

    Cooperatives and the World of Work No. 15 - Partnerships between trade unions and the social and solidarity economy to support informal economy workers

    13 May 2022

    This brief documents partnerships between trade unions and the social and the solidarity economy in support of informal economy workers. It is based on a research study that involved a literature review, and an examination of selected partnerships through the development of country case studies in Brazil, Colombia, Kenya and South Africa, and validation of findings with organizations of informal economy workers.